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Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1242; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041242

Evaluation of Over-The-Row Harvester Damage in a Super-High-Density Olive Orchard Using On-Board Sensing Techniques

1
Dpto. Ingeniería Aeroespacial y Mecánica de Fluidos, Área de Ingeniería Agroforestal, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica (ETSIA), Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
2
Dpto. Ciencias Agroforestales, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Agronómica (ETSIA), Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
3
Laboratorio de Propiedades Físicas (LPF_TRAGRALIA), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2018)
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Abstract

New super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards designed for mechanical harvesting using over-the-row harvesters are becoming increasingly common around the world. Some studies regarding olive SHD harvesting have focused on the effective removal of the olive fruits; however, the energy applied to the canopy by the harvesting machine that can result in fruit damage, structural damage or extra stress on the trees has been little studied. Using conventional analyses, this study investigates the effects of different nominal speeds and beating frequencies on the removal efficiency and the potential for fruit damage, and it uses remote sensing to determine changes in the plant structures of two varieties of olive trees (‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ and ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’) planted in SHD orchards harvested by an over-the-row harvester. ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ fruit was the least tolerant to damage, and for this variety, harvesting at the highest nominal speed led to the greatest percentage of fruits with cuts. Different vibration patterns were applied to the olive trees and were evaluated using triaxial accelerometers. The use of two light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensing devices allowed us to evaluate structural changes in the studied olive trees. Before- and after-harvest measurements revealed significant differences in the LiDAR data analysis, particularly at the highest nominal speed. The results of this work show that the operating conditions of the harvester are key to minimising fruit damage and that a rapid estimate of the damage produced by an over-the-row harvester with contactless sensing could provide useful information for automatically adjusting the machine parameters in individual olive groves in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: Olea europaea; laser scanning; monitoring; canopy volume; fruit damage; olive harvester Olea europaea; laser scanning; monitoring; canopy volume; fruit damage; olive harvester
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Pérez-Ruiz, M.; Rallo, P.; Jiménez, M.R.; Garrido-Izard, M.; Suárez, M.P.; Casanova, L.; Valero, C.; Martínez-Guanter, J.; Morales-Sillero, A. Evaluation of Over-The-Row Harvester Damage in a Super-High-Density Olive Orchard Using On-Board Sensing Techniques. Sensors 2018, 18, 1242.

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