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Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041062

Mobile Sinks Assisted Geographic and Opportunistic Routing Based Interference Avoidance for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network

1
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
3
Biomedical Technology Department, CAMS, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia
4
Cameron Library, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2J8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 23 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 2 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

The distinctive features of acoustic communication channel-like high propagation delay, multi-path fading, quick attenuation of acoustic signal, etc. limit the utilization of underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). The immutable selection of forwarder node leads to dramatic death of node resulting in imbalanced energy depletion and void hole creation. To reduce the probability of void occurrence and imbalance energy dissipation, in this paper, we propose mobility assisted geo-opportunistic routing paradigm based on interference avoidance for UWSNs. The network volume is divided into logical small cubes to reduce the interference and to make more informed routing decisions for efficient energy consumption. Additionally, an optimal number of forwarder nodes is elected from each cube based on its proximity with respect to the destination to avoid void occurrence. Moreover, the data packets are recovered from void regions with the help of mobile sinks which also reduce the data traffic on intermediate nodes. Extensive simulations are performed to verify that our proposed work maximizes the network lifetime and packet delivery ratio. View Full-Text
Keywords: opportunistic routing; potential neighbor number; communication void; local maxima; energy consumption; packet delivery; latency; depth adjustment opportunistic routing; potential neighbor number; communication void; local maxima; energy consumption; packet delivery; latency; depth adjustment
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Ahmed, F.; Wadud, Z.; Javaid, N.; Alrajeh, N.; Alabed, M.S.; Qasim, U. Mobile Sinks Assisted Geographic and Opportunistic Routing Based Interference Avoidance for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network. Sensors 2018, 18, 1062.

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