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Sensors 2018, 18(3), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030827

A Backpack-Mounted Omnidirectional Camera with Off-the-Shelf Navigation Sensors for Mobile Terrestrial Mapping: Development and Forest Application

1
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Presidente Prudente 19060-900, São Paulo, Brazil
2
Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala, Finland
3
Department of Geography and Geology, University of Turku, Turku, 20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract

The use of Personal Mobile Terrestrial System (PMTS) has increased considerably for mobile mapping applications because these systems offer dynamic data acquisition with ground perspective in places where the use of wheeled platforms is unfeasible, such as forests and indoor buildings. PMTS has become more popular with emerging technologies, such as miniaturized navigation sensors and off-the-shelf omnidirectional cameras, which enable low-cost mobile mapping approaches. However, most of these sensors have not been developed for high-accuracy metric purposes and therefore require rigorous methods of data acquisition and data processing to obtain satisfactory results for some mapping applications. To contribute to the development of light, low-cost PMTS and potential applications of these off-the-shelf sensors for forest mapping, this paper presents a low-cost PMTS approach comprising an omnidirectional camera with off-the-shelf navigation systems and its evaluation in a forest environment. Experimental assessments showed that the integrated sensor orientation approach using navigation data as the initial information can increase the trajectory accuracy, especially in covered areas. The point cloud generated with the PMTS data had accuracy consistent with the Ground Sample Distance (GSD) range of omnidirectional images (3.5–7 cm). These results are consistent with those obtained for other PMTS approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: personal mobile terrestrial system; omnidirectional cameras; low-cost sensors; forest mapping; PMTS data quality personal mobile terrestrial system; omnidirectional cameras; low-cost sensors; forest mapping; PMTS data quality
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Campos, M.B.; Tommaselli, A.M.G.; Honkavaara, E.; Prol, F.S.; Kaartinen, H.; El Issaoui, A.; Hakala, T. A Backpack-Mounted Omnidirectional Camera with Off-the-Shelf Navigation Sensors for Mobile Terrestrial Mapping: Development and Forest Application. Sensors 2018, 18, 827.

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