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Sensors 2018, 18(3), 758; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030758

Nonlinear Errors Resulting from Ghost Reflection and Its Coupling with Optical Mixing in Heterodyne Laser Interferometers

1,2,†
,
1,†
,
1,* , 1
and
2
1
Institute of Ultra-Precision Optoelectronic Instrument Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
2
Postdoctoral Research Station of Optical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
These authors contribute equally to this study.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optoelectronic and Photonic Sensors)
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Abstract

Even after the Heydemann correction, residual nonlinear errors, ranging from hundreds of picometers to several nanometers, are still found in heterodyne laser interferometers. This is a crucial factor impeding the realization of picometer level metrology, but its source and mechanism have barely been investigated. To study this problem, a novel nonlinear model based on optical mixing and coupling with ghost reflection is proposed and then verified by experiments. After intense investigation of this new model’s influence, results indicate that new additional high-order and negative-order nonlinear harmonics, arising from ghost reflection and its coupling with optical mixing, have only a negligible contribution to the overall nonlinear error. In real applications, any effect on the Lissajous trajectory might be invisible due to the small ghost reflectance. However, even a tiny ghost reflection can significantly worsen the effectiveness of the Heydemann correction, or even make this correction completely ineffective, i.e., compensation makes the error larger rather than smaller. Moreover, the residual nonlinear error after correction is dominated only by ghost reflectance. View Full-Text
Keywords: laser sensor; heterodyne interferometer; optical nonlinearity; ghost reflection; optical mixing laser sensor; heterodyne interferometer; optical nonlinearity; ghost reflection; optical mixing
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Fu, H.; Wang, Y.; Hu, P.; Tan, J.; Fan, Z. Nonlinear Errors Resulting from Ghost Reflection and Its Coupling with Optical Mixing in Heterodyne Laser Interferometers. Sensors 2018, 18, 758.

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