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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020432

Random Access for Underwater Acoustic Cellular Systems

School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Korea
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Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 28 December 2017 / Published: 1 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Challenges in Underwater Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

In this paper, a random access preamble (RAP) design technique for underwater acoustic cellular systems is proposed. After showing that the conventional RAP used in long term evolution (LTE) systems is not appropriate for underwater acoustic cellular systems, two different types of RAPs (RAP 1 and RAP 2) are proposed to detect the identity of underwater equipment/nodes (UEs) and estimate the time delay between a UE and an underwater base station (UBS) at the physical layer. RAP 1 is generated using a Zadoff-Chu (ZC) sequence where the identity of the UE is mapped to its root index, whereas RAP 2 is generated using a linear frequency modulation (LFM) waveform where the identity of the UE is mapped to its frequency sweeping parameter and frequency shifting parameter. Ambiguity functions (AFs) and cross-ambiguity functions (CAFs) of RAP 1 and RAP 2 are derived to investigate their correlation properties under the effect of time delay and Doppler shift. The performance of RAP detection is investigated by analyzing the detection probabilities and false alarm probabilities of RAP 1 and RAP 2 in a Doppler environment. By evaluating the performances of RAP 1 and RAP 2 in various situations, it is concluded that RAP 2 is more suitable for underwater acoustic cellular systems. The AF and CAF analytically obtained in this paper are shown to be similar to those obtained using experimental data. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater acoustic cellular system; random access; ambiguity function; Doppler environment underwater acoustic cellular system; random access; ambiguity function; Doppler environment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Pec, R.; Khan, M.S.; Asim, M.; Cho, Y.S. Random Access for Underwater Acoustic Cellular Systems. Sensors 2018, 18, 432.

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