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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020370

Securing Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Against Collusive SSDF Attack using XOR Distance Analysis in Cognitive Radio Networks

1,†
,
1,†
,
2,†,* and 3,†
1
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Information Communication Network and Security, Xi’an University of Posts & Telecommunications, Xi’an 710121, China
2
School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi’an 710127, China
3
Information Security Research Center of State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2017 / Revised: 13 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 27 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cognitive Radio Sensing and Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) is considered as a powerful approach to improve the utilization of scarce spectrum resources. However, if CSS assumes that all secondary users (SU) are honest, it may offer opportunities for attackers to conduct a spectrum sensing data falsification (SSDF) attack. To suppress such a threat, recent efforts have been made to develop trust mechanisms. Currently, some attackers can collude with each other to form a collusive clique, and thus not only increase the power of SSDF attack but also avoid the detection of a trust mechanism. Noting the duality of sensing data, we propose a defense scheme called XDA from the perspective of XOR distance analysis to suppress a collusive SSDF attack. In the XDA scheme, the XOR distance calculation in line with the type of “0” and “1” historical sensing data is used to measure the similarity between any two SUs. Noting that collusive SSDF attackers hold high trust value and the minimum XOR distance, the algorithm to detect collusive SSDF attackers is designed. Meanwhile, the XDA scheme can perfect the trust mechanism to correct collusive SSDF attackers’ trust value. Simulation results show that the XDA scheme can enhance the accuracy of trust evaluation, and thus successfully reduce the power of collusive SSDF attack against CSS. View Full-Text
Keywords: cooperative spectrum sensing; cognitive radio; trust; collusive attack; network security cooperative spectrum sensing; cognitive radio; trust; collusive attack; network security
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Feng, J.; Zhang, M.; Xiao, Y.; Yue, H. Securing Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Against Collusive SSDF Attack using XOR Distance Analysis in Cognitive Radio Networks. Sensors 2018, 18, 370.

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