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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 61; doi:10.3390/s18010061

Real-Time Monitoring and Analysis of Zebrafish Electrocardiogram with Anomaly Detection

School of STEM, University of Washington Bothell, Bothell, WA 98011, USA
School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
School of Electronics and Telecommunications, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam
School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 November 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 24 December 2017 / Published: 28 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3443 KB, uploaded 28 December 2017]   |  


Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. with approximately 610,000 people dying every year. Effective therapies for many cardiac diseases are lacking, largely due to an incomplete understanding of their genetic basis and underlying molecular mechanisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an excellent model system for studying heart disease as they enable a forward genetic approach to tackle this unmet medical need. In recent years, our team has been employing electrocardiogram (ECG) as an efficient tool to study the zebrafish heart along with conventional approaches, such as immunohistochemistry, DNA and protein analyses. We have overcome various challenges in the small size and aquatic environment of zebrafish in order to obtain ECG signals with favorable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper, we highlight our recent efforts in zebrafish ECG acquisition with a cost-effective simplified microelectrode array (MEA) membrane providing multi-channel recording, a novel multi-chamber apparatus for simultaneous screening, and a LabVIEW program to facilitate recording and processing. We also demonstrate the use of machine learning-based programs to recognize specific ECG patterns, yielding promising results with our current limited amount of zebrafish data. Our solutions hold promise to carry out numerous studies of heart diseases, drug screening, stem cell-based therapy validation, and regenerative medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: zebrafish; electrocardiogram (ECG); heart diseases; phenotype screening; ECG pattern recognition; real-time monitoring; machine learning zebrafish; electrocardiogram (ECG); heart diseases; phenotype screening; ECG pattern recognition; real-time monitoring; machine learning

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lenning, M.; Fortunato, J.; Le, T.; Clark, I.; Sherpa, A.; Yi, S.; Hofsteen, P.; Thamilarasu, G.; Yang, J.; Xu, X.; Han, H.-D.; Hsiai, T.K.; Cao, H. Real-Time Monitoring and Analysis of Zebrafish Electrocardiogram with Anomaly Detection. Sensors 2018, 18, 61.

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