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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010013

Quantified, Interactive Simulation of AMCW ToF Camera Including Multipath Effects

Computer Graphics Group, Institute for Vision and Graphics, University of Siegen, 57076 Siegen, Germany
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Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 12 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 22 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging Depth Sensors—Sensors, Algorithms and Applications)
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Abstract

In the last decade, Time-of-Flight (ToF) range cameras have gained increasing popularity in robotics, automotive industry, and home entertainment. Despite technological developments, ToF cameras still suffer from error sources such as multipath interference or motion artifacts. Thus, simulation of ToF cameras, including these artifacts, is important to improve camera and algorithm development. This paper presents a physically-based, interactive simulation technique for amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) ToF cameras, which, among other error sources, includes single bounce indirect multipath interference based on an enhanced image-space approach. The simulation accounts for physical units down to the charge level accumulated in sensor pixels. Furthermore, we present the first quantified comparison for ToF camera simulators. We present bidirectional reference distribution function (BRDF) measurements for selected, purchasable materials in the near-infrared (NIR) range, craft real and synthetic scenes out of these materials and quantitatively compare the range sensor data. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-of-flight; sensor simulation; BRDF time-of-flight; sensor simulation; BRDF
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bulczak, D.; Lambers, M.; Kolb, A. Quantified, Interactive Simulation of AMCW ToF Camera Including Multipath Effects. Sensors 2018, 18, 13.

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