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Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1858; doi:10.3390/s17081858

An Energy-Efficient Mobile Sink-Based Unequal Clustering Mechanism for WSNs

1
Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
2
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
3
College of Engineering, King Saud University, Post Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Network lifetime and energy efficiency are crucial performance metrics used to evaluate wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Decreasing and balancing the energy consumption of nodes can be employed to increase network lifetime. In cluster-based WSNs, one objective of applying clustering is to decrease the energy consumption of the network. In fact, the clustering technique will be considered effective if the energy consumed by sensor nodes decreases after applying clustering, however, this aim will not be achieved if the cluster size is not properly chosen. Therefore, in this paper, the energy consumption of nodes, before clustering, is considered to determine the optimal cluster size. A two-stage Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed to determine the optimal interval of cluster size and derive the exact value from the interval. Furthermore, the energy hole is an inherent problem which leads to a remarkable decrease in the network’s lifespan. This problem stems from the asynchronous energy depletion of nodes located in different layers of the network. For this reason, we propose Circular Motion of Mobile-Sink with Varied Velocity Algorithm (CM2SV2) to balance the energy consumption ratio of cluster heads (CH). According to the results, these strategies could largely increase the network’s lifetime by decreasing the energy consumption of sensors and balancing the energy consumption among CHs. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; network lifetime; energy holes; genetic algorithm; mobile sink wireless sensor networks; network lifetime; energy holes; genetic algorithm; mobile sink
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Gharaei, N.; Abu Bakar, K.; Mohd Hashim, S.Z.; Hosseingholi Pourasl, A.; Siraj, M.; Darwish, T. An Energy-Efficient Mobile Sink-Based Unequal Clustering Mechanism for WSNs. Sensors 2017, 17, 1858.

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