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Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1835; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17081835

Amalgam Electrode-Based Electrochemical Detector for On-Site Direct Determination of Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) from Soils

1
Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Purkynova 123, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department of Microelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 10, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic
4
Department of Geology and Paedology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

Toxic metal contamination of the environment is a global issue. In this paper, we present a low-cost and rapid production of amalgam electrodes used for determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in environmental samples (soils and wastewaters) by on-site analysis using difference pulse voltammetry. Changes in the electrochemical signals were recorded with a miniaturized potentiostat (width: 80 mm, depth: 54 mm, height: 23 mm) and a portable computer. The limit of detection (LOD) was calculated for the geometric surface of the working electrode 15 mm2 that can be varied as required for analysis. The LODs were 80 ng·mL−1 for Cd(II) and 50 ng·mL−1 for Pb(II), relative standard deviation, RSD ≤ 8% (n = 3). The area of interest (Dolni Rozinka, Czech Republic) was selected because there is a deposit of uranium ore and extreme anthropogenic activity. Environmental samples were taken directly on-site and immediately analysed. Duration of a single analysis was approximately two minutes. The average concentrations of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in this area were below the global average. The obtained values were verified (correlated) by standard electrochemical methods based on hanging drop electrodes and were in good agreement. The advantages of this method are its cost and time effectivity (approximately two minutes per one sample) with direct analysis of turbid samples (soil leach) in a 2 M HNO3 environment. This type of sample cannot be analyzed using the classical analytical methods without pretreatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: amalgam electrodes; electrochemistry; heavy metals; soil; turbid sample amalgam electrodes; electrochemistry; heavy metals; soil; turbid sample
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Nejdl, L.; Kynicky, J.; Brtnicky, M.; Vaculovicova, M.; Adam, V. Amalgam Electrode-Based Electrochemical Detector for On-Site Direct Determination of Cadmium(II) and Lead(II) from Soils. Sensors 2017, 17, 1835.

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