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Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1753; doi:10.3390/s17081753

Practical Considerations before Installing Ground-Based Geodetic Infrastructure for Integrated InSAR and cGNSS Monitoring of Vertical Land Motion

1
Department of Spatial Sciences and the Institute for Geoscience Research, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Australia
2
School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
3
Geodesy Section, Community Safety and Earth Monitoring Division, Geoscience Australia, GPO Box 378, Canberra 2601, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract

Continuously operating Global Navigation Satellite Systems (cGNSS) can be used to convert relative values of vertical land motion (VLM) derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to absolute values in a global or regional reference frame. Artificial trihedral corner reflectors (CRs) provide high-intensity and temporally stable reflections in SAR time series imagery, more so than naturally occurring permanent scatterers. Therefore, it is logical to co-locate CRs with cGNSS as ground-based geodetic infrastructure for the integrated monitoring of VLM. We describe the practical considerations for such co-locations using four case-study examples from Perth, Australia. After basic initial considerations such as land access, sky visibility and security, temporary test deployments of co-located CRs with cGNSS should be analysed together to determine site suitability. Signal to clutter ratios from SAR imagery are used to determine potential sites for placement of the CR. A significant concern is whether the co-location of a deliberately designed reflecting object generates unwanted multipath (reflected signals) in the cGNSS data. To mitigate against this, we located CRs >30 m from the cGNSS with no inter-visibility. Daily RMS values of the zero-difference ionosphere-free carrier-phase residuals, and ellipsoidal heights from static precise point positioning GNSS processing at each co-located site were then used to ascertain that the CR did not generate unwanted cGNSS multipath. These steps form a set of recommendations for the installation of such geodetic ground-infrastructure, which may be of use to others wishing to establish integrated InSAR-cGNSS monitoring of VLM elsewhere. View Full-Text
Keywords: vertical land motion; InSAR; corner reflectors; continuous GNSS; TerraSAR-X; sentinel-1; geodetic networks; displacement monitoring vertical land motion; InSAR; corner reflectors; continuous GNSS; TerraSAR-X; sentinel-1; geodetic networks; displacement monitoring
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Parker, A.L.; Featherstone, W.E.; Penna, N.T.; Filmer, M.S.; Garthwaite, M.C. Practical Considerations before Installing Ground-Based Geodetic Infrastructure for Integrated InSAR and cGNSS Monitoring of Vertical Land Motion. Sensors 2017, 17, 1753.

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