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Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1489; doi:10.3390/s17071489

A Direct Georeferencing Method for Terrestrial Laser Scanning Using GNSS Data and the Vertical Deflection from Global Earth Gravity Models

Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, ul, Grunwaldzka 53, 50-357 Wrocław, Poland
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Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract

Terrestrial laser scanning is an efficient technique in providing highly accurate point clouds for various geoscience applications. The point clouds have to be transformed to a well-defined reference frame, such as the global Geodetic Reference System 1980. The transformation to the geocentric coordinate frame is based on estimating seven Helmert parameters using several GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) referencing points. This paper proposes a method for direct point cloud georeferencing that provides coordinates in the geocentric frame. The proposed method employs the vertical deflection from an external global Earth gravity model and thus demands a minimum number of GNSS measurements. The proposed method can be helpful when the number of georeferencing GNSS points is limited, for instance in city corridors. It needs only two georeferencing points. The validation of the method in a field test reveals that the differences between the classical georefencing and the proposed method amount at maximum to 7 mm with the standard deviation of 8 mm for all of three coordinate components. The proposed method may serve as an alternative for the laser scanning data georeferencing, especially when the number of GNSS points is insufficient for classical methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; georeferencing; reference frame transformation; GNSS positioning; spatial directional intersection; Earth gravity model; deflection of the vertical terrestrial laser scanning; georeferencing; reference frame transformation; GNSS positioning; spatial directional intersection; Earth gravity model; deflection of the vertical
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Osada, E.; Sośnica, K.; Borkowski, A.; Owczarek-Wesołowska, M.; Gromczak, A. A Direct Georeferencing Method for Terrestrial Laser Scanning Using GNSS Data and the Vertical Deflection from Global Earth Gravity Models. Sensors 2017, 17, 1489.

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