An Extended Kriging Method to Interpolate Near-Surface Soil Moisture Data Measured by Wireless Sensor Networks
AbstractIn the practice of interpolating near-surface soil moisture measured by a wireless sensor network (WSN) grid, traditional Kriging methods with auxiliary variables, such as Co-kriging and Kriging with external drift (KED), cannot achieve satisfactory results because of the heterogeneity of soil moisture and its low correlation with the auxiliary variables. This study developed an Extended Kriging method to interpolate with the aid of remote sensing images. The underlying idea is to extend the traditional Kriging by introducing spectral variables, and operating on spatial and spectral combined space. The algorithm has been applied to WSN-measured soil moisture data in HiWATER campaign to generate daily maps from 10 June to 15 July 2012. For comparison, three traditional Kriging methods are applied: Ordinary Kriging (OK), which used WSN data only, Co-kriging and KED, both of which integrated remote sensing data as covariate. Visual inspections indicate that the result from Extended Kriging shows more spatial details than that of OK, Co-kriging, and KED. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of Extended Kriging was found to be the smallest among the four interpolation results. This indicates that the proposed method has advantages in combining remote sensing information and ground measurements in soil moisture interpolation. View Full-Text
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Zhang, J.; Li, X.; Yang, R.; Liu, Q.; Zhao, L.; Dou, B. An Extended Kriging Method to Interpolate Near-Surface Soil Moisture Data Measured by Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 1390.
Zhang J, Li X, Yang R, Liu Q, Zhao L, Dou B. An Extended Kriging Method to Interpolate Near-Surface Soil Moisture Data Measured by Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2017; 17(6):1390.Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhang, Jialin; Li, Xiuhong; Yang, Rongjin; Liu, Qiang; Zhao, Long; Dou, Baocheng. 2017. "An Extended Kriging Method to Interpolate Near-Surface Soil Moisture Data Measured by Wireless Sensor Networks." Sensors 17, no. 6: 1390.
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