Next Article in Journal
Development of Laser Scanner for Full Cross-Sectional Deformation Monitoring of Underground Gateroads
Next Article in Special Issue
A Study on the Model of Detecting the Liquid Level of Sealed Containers Based on Kirchhoff Approximation Theory
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Joint Estimation of Source Range and Depth Using a Bottom-Deployed Vertical Line Array in Deep Water
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1323; doi:10.3390/s17061323

Left–Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Central University, Zhongli, Taiyuan 320, Taiwan
2
Mt. San Antonio College, Walnut, CA 91789, USA
3
Department of Respiratory Care, College of Health Sciences, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan 711, Taiwan
4
School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
5
Division of Chest Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
6
Laboratory of Biophysics, Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xiaoning Jian and Chao Zhang
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustic Sensing and Ultrasonic Drug Delivery)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3605 KB, uploaded 8 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Though lung sounds auscultation is important for the diagnosis and monitoring of lung diseases, the spectral characteristics of lung sounds have not been fully understood. This study compared the spectral characteristics of lung sounds between the right and left lungs and between healthy male and female subjects using a dual-channel auscultation system. Forty-two subjects aged 18–22 years without smoking habits and any known pulmonary diseases participated in this study. The lung sounds were recorded from seven pairs of auscultation sites on the chest wall simultaneously. We found that in four out of seven auscultation pairs, the lung sounds from the left lung had a higher total power (PT) than those from the right lung. The PT of male subjects was higher than that of female ones in most auscultation pairs. The ratio of inspiration power to expiration power (RI/E) of lung sounds from the right lung was greater than that from the left lung at auscultation pairs on the anterior chest wall, while this phenomenon was reversed at auscultation pairs on the posterior chest wall in combined subjects, and similarly in both male and female subjects. Though the frequency corresponding to maximum power density of lung sounds (FMPD) from the left and right lungs was not significantly different, the frequency that equally divided the power spectrum of lung sounds (F50) from the left lung was significantly smaller than that from the right lung at auscultation site on the anterior and lateral chest walls, while it was significantly larger than that of from the right lung at auscultation site on the posterior chest walls. In conclusion, significant differences in the PT, FMPD, F50, and RI/E between the left and right lungs at some auscultation pairs were observed by using a dual-channel auscultation system in this study. Structural differences between the left and the right lungs, between the female and male subjects, and between anterior and posterior lungs might account for the observed differences in the spectral characteristics of lung sounds. The dual-channel auscultation system might be useful for future development of digital stethoscopes and power spectral analysis of lung sounds in patients with various kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: auscultation; lung sounds; stethoscope; power spectrum; dual-channel auscultation; lung sounds; stethoscope; power spectrum; dual-channel
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tsai, J.-Z.; Chang, M.-L.; Yang, J.-Y.; Kuo, D.; Lin, C.-H.; Kuo, C.-D. Left–Right Asymmetry in Spectral Characteristics of Lung Sounds Detected Using a Dual-Channel Auscultation System in Healthy Young Adults. Sensors 2017, 17, 1323.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top