- freely available
Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1230; doi:10.3390/s17061230
2. Related Work
- Indoor space: The type of indoor space the activity recognition experiments were carried out in, such as a home, a laboratory or another environment.
- IMU sensors: The different IMU sensors that were used by a classifier to infer a participant’s activity.
- Classification approach: What machine learning classification algorithms were used in the approach to estimate the activity performed by a participant.
- Commercial-Off-The Shelf (COTS): Whether the devices used in the experiments are widely accessible and available to an end user.
2.1. Activity Recognition Using COTS
2.2. Activity Recognition with Custom Devices
2.3. Location-Enhanced HAR
3. System Architecture
3.1. Smart Watch
3.2. BLE Beacons
3.3. Mobile Application
4. Activity Recognition Chain
- Type 1: mean and standard deviation.
- Type 2: mean, standard deviation, minimum, maximum and mean crossing rate.
5. Experimental Setup
5.1. Beacon Deployment
5.2. Laboratory Activities
- Typing: When conducting this activity, the participants used a standard desktop-style computer located in the laboratory, as depicted in Figure 6a. The computer was prepared with randomly-chosen excerpts at the top of the screen with a word processing application at the bottom of the screen. Then, the participants simply needed to type the text into the word processor.
- Servicing: In this activity, the participants were performing servicing tasks on computer equipment by removing and replacing service panels and changing over individual components. This is illustrated in Figure 6b. More specifically, the participants were exchanging components in the network router units by unscrewing the service panels.
- Scanning: For this activity, depicted in Figure 6c, the participants were asked to scan large amounts of small embedded components (LCD screens, keypads, sensors units, etc.) with applied bar codes using a hand-held scanner. This activity would be typically performed when loaning equipment to students or staff or when taking a stock check. Additionally, the participants were only asked to use their dominant hand to hold the scanner when performing this activity.
- Relocating: This activity consisted of moving large volumes of equipment from one storage location to another, as shown in Figure 6d. When performing this activity, the participants were only told to move one piece of equipment at a time. All equipment relocated by the participants could be grasped using only one hand.
- Patching: Within this activity, the participants were presented with multiple network switches accompanied by enough Ethernet cables to be inserted into every port of the switches. Figure 6e illustrates this setup. Each participant was instructed to patch in the Ethernet cables across the multiple switches in any way he/she wished. Additionally, the supplied Ethernet cables were not of equal length.
- Installing: This activity involved the installation of various software packages on a laptop, as shown in Figure 6f. Moreover, the laptop was turned on and was prepared with none of the software packages installed. Then, each participant was supplied with a USB flash drive containing the installers for the software packages and was only instructed on the order in which the packages should be installed.
- Assembling: When conducting this activity, depicted in Figure 6g, the participants were presented with a small dismantled vehicular robot with brief assembling instructions and a basic toolkit. Only required parts and tools were supplied; no additional equipment was given. The only instruction given to each participant was to assemble the robot using the tools and instructions provided.
- Refilling: In this activity, the participants were performing maintenance on two printers located in the laboratory. More specifically, as Figure 6h illustrates, the participants were asked to replace the various printer cartridges. To perform this activity, the participants were required to open the service panel of the printer and then replace the old cartridge with a new cartridge. Finally, the participant would close the service panel of the printer. No tools were required to open and close the service panel of the printer.
6.1. Overview of Results
6.2. Evaluation of Individual Activities
Conflicts of Interest
|ANN||Artificial Neural Networks|
|API||Application Program Interface|
|BLE||Bluetooth Low Energy|
|CRF||Conditional Random Field|
|GNSS||Global Navigation Satellite System|
|HAR||Human Activity Recognition|
|HMM||Hidden Markov Models|
|IMU||Inertial Measurement Unit|
|IPS||Indoor Positioning System|
|RSSI||Received Signal Strength Indicator|
|SVM||Support Vector Machines|
|UUID||Universally Unique Identifier|
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|Publication||Indoor Space||IMU Sensors||Classification Approach||COTS|
|Activity Code||Activity Name||Sector Codes|
|A1||Typing||S2, S3, S4|
|A2||Servicing||S2, S3, S4|
|A5||Patching||S2, S3, S4|
|A6||Installing||S1, S2, S3, S4|
|A7||Assembling||S2, S3, S4|
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