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Sensors 2017, 17(5), 950; doi:10.3390/s17050950

A Simple, Cost-Effective Sensor for Detecting Lead Ions in Water Using Under-Potential Deposited Bismuth Sub-Layer with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)

Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Electronics Design Center, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 22 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

This research has developed a simple to use, cost effective sensor system for the detection of lead ions in tap water. An under-potential deposited bismuth sub-layer on a thin gold film based electrochemical sensor was designed, manufactured, and evaluated. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement technique was employed in this detection. Tap water from the Cleveland, OH, USA regional water district was the test medium. Concentrations of lead ion in the range of 8 × 10−7 M to 5 × 10−4 M were evaluated, showing a good sensitivity over this concentration range. The calibration curve for the DPV measurements of lead ions in tap water showed excellent reproducibility with R2 value of 0.970. This DPV detection system required 3–6 min to complete the detection measurement. A longer measurement time of 6 min was used for the lower lead ion concentration. The selectivity of this lead ion sensor was very good, and Fe III, Cu II, Ni II, and Mg II at a concentration level of 5 × 10−4 M did not interfere with the lead ion measurement. View Full-Text
Keywords: under-potential deposition; bismuth sub-layer; lead ions; DPV under-potential deposition; bismuth sub-layer; lead ions; DPV
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dai, Y.; Liu, C.C. A Simple, Cost-Effective Sensor for Detecting Lead Ions in Water Using Under-Potential Deposited Bismuth Sub-Layer with Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV). Sensors 2017, 17, 950.

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