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Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1046; doi:10.3390/s17051046

A Versatile Electronic Tongue Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging and Cross-Reactive Sensor Arrays—A Mini-Review

1
Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, University of Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SyMMES, F-38000 Grenoble, France
2
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, SyMMES UMR 5819, F-38000 Grenoble, France
3
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), INAC-SyMMES, F-38000 Grenoble, France
4
Institut Néel, F-38000 Grenoble, France
5
ICMMO/G2M/LCOM, UMR 8182 (CNRS-UPS), LabEx LERMIT, Université Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay CEDEX, France
6
Institut de Biologie Structurale, University of Grenoble Alpes, UMR 5075, 38027 Grenoble, France
7
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Structurale, UMR 5075, 38027 Grenoble, France
8
Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Biologie Structurale, UMR 5075, 38027 Grenoble, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault and Gaelle Lissorgues
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 2 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in France 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4369 KB, uploaded 6 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Nowadays, there is a strong demand for the development of new analytical devices with novel performances to improve the quality of our daily lives. In this context, multisensor systems such as electronic tongues (eTs) have emerged as promising alternatives. Recently, we have developed a new versatile eT system by coupling surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) with cross-reactive sensor arrays. In order to largely simplify the preparation of sensing materials with a great diversity, an innovative combinatorial approach was proposed by combining and mixing a small number of easily accessible molecules displaying different physicochemical properties. The obtained eT was able to generate 2D continuous evolution profile (CEP) and 3D continuous evolution landscape (CEL), which is also called 3D image, with valuable kinetic information, for the discrimination and classification of samples. Here, diverse applications of such a versatile eT have been summarized. It is not only effective for pure protein analysis, capable of differentiating protein isoforms such as chemokines CXCL12α and CXCL12γ, but can also be generalized for the analysis of complex mixtures, such as milk samples, with promising potential for monitoring the deterioration of milk. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic tongues; cross-reactive sensor array; surface plasmon resonance imaging; pattern recognition; continuous evolution landscape; protein; beverages; milk electronic tongues; cross-reactive sensor array; surface plasmon resonance imaging; pattern recognition; continuous evolution landscape; protein; beverages; milk
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garçon, L.-A.; Genua, M.; Hou, Y.; Buhot, A.; Calemczuk, R.; Livache, T.; Billon, M.; Le Narvor, C.; Bonnaffé, D.; Lortat-Jacob, H.; Hou, Y. A Versatile Electronic Tongue Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging and Cross-Reactive Sensor Arrays—A Mini-Review. Sensors 2017, 17, 1046.

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