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Sensors 2017, 17(4), 756; doi:10.3390/s17040756

The Impact of Estimating High-Resolution Tropospheric Gradients on Multi-GNSS Precise Positioning

1
Engineering Center of SHMEC for Space Information and GNSS, East China Normal University, No. 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241, China
2
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multidimensional Information Processing, East China Normal University, No. 500 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200241, China
3
German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam 14473, Germany
4
College of Surveying and Geo-informatics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
5
Faculty VI Planning Building Environment, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin 10623, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
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Abstract

Benefits from the modernized US Global Positioning System (GPS), the revitalized Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System (GLONASS), and the newly-developed Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and European Galileo, multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has emerged as a powerful tool not only in positioning, navigation, and timing (PNT), but also in remote sensing of the atmosphere and ionosphere. Both precise positioning and the derivation of atmospheric parameters can benefit from multi-GNSS observations. In this contribution, extensive evaluations are conducted with multi-GNSS datasets collected from 134 globally-distributed ground stations of the International GNSS Service (IGS) Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network in July 2016. The datasets are processed in six different constellation combinations, i.e., GPS-, GLONASS-, BDS-only, GPS + GLONASS, GPS + BDS, and GPS + GLONASS + BDS + Galileo precise point positioning (PPP). Tropospheric gradients are estimated with eight different temporal resolutions, from 1 h to 24 h, to investigate the impact of estimating high-resolution gradients on position estimates. The standard deviation (STD) is used as an indicator of positioning repeatability. The results show that estimating tropospheric gradients with high temporal resolution can achieve better positioning performance than the traditional strategy in which tropospheric gradients are estimated on a daily basis. Moreover, the impact of estimating tropospheric gradients with different temporal resolutions at various elevation cutoff angles (from 3° to 20°) is investigated. It can be observed that with increasing elevation cutoff angles, the improvement in positioning repeatability is decreased. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS; tropospheric gradients; precise point positioning (PPP); temporal resolution; elevation cutoff angle GNSS; tropospheric gradients; precise point positioning (PPP); temporal resolution; elevation cutoff angle
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, F.; Li, X.; Li, W.; Chen, W.; Dong, D.; Wickert, J.; Schuh, H. The Impact of Estimating High-Resolution Tropospheric Gradients on Multi-GNSS Precise Positioning. Sensors 2017, 17, 756.

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