Next Article in Journal
A Power Planning Algorithm Based on RPL for AMI Wireless Sensor Networks
Previous Article in Journal
A Smart Sensor for Defending against Clock Glitching Attacks on the I2C Protocol in Robotic Applications
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 678; doi:10.3390/s17040678

SmartFluo: A Method and Affordable Adapter to Measure Chlorophyll a Fluorescence with Smartphones

1
Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Schleusenstrasse 1, 26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany
2
Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University, Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen, Germany
3
Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: W. Rudolf Seitz
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2343 KB, uploaded 25 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

In order to increase the monitoring capabilities of inland and coastal waters, there is a need for new, affordable, sensitive and mobile instruments that could be operated semi-automatically in the field. This paper presents a prototype device to measure chlorophyll a fluorescence: the SmartFluo. The device is a combination of a smartphone offering an intuitive operation interface and an adapter implying a cuvette holder, as well as a suitable illumination source. SmartFluo is based on stimulated fluorescence of water constituents such as chlorophyll a. The red band of the digital smartphone camera is sensitive enough to detect quantitatively the characteristic red fluorescence emission. The adapter contains a light source, a strong light emitting diode and additional filters to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and to suppress the impact of scattering. A novel algorithm utilizing the red band of the camera is provided. Laboratory experiments of the SmartFluo show a linear correlation (R 2 = 0.98) to the chlorophyll a concentrations measured by reference instruments, such as a high-performance benchtop laboratory fluorometer (LS 55, PerkinElmer). View Full-Text
Keywords: citizen science; affordable sensors; marine environment; open laboratory ware; LED; 3D printing citizen science; affordable sensors; marine environment; open laboratory ware; LED; 3D printing
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Friedrichs, A.; Busch, J.A.; van der Woerd, H.J.; Zielinski, O. SmartFluo: A Method and Affordable Adapter to Measure Chlorophyll a Fluorescence with Smartphones. Sensors 2017, 17, 678.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top