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Sensors 2017, 17(2), 324; doi:10.3390/s17020324

mDARAL: A Multi-Radio Version for the DARAL Routing Algorithm

1
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences of Münster, Stegerwaldstr. 39, D-48565 Steinfurt, Germany
2
Department of Computer Architecture and Technology, University of Granada, Periodista Daniel Saucedo Aranda, S/N, 18071 Granada, Spain
3
Department of Computer Technology, University of Alicante, Carretera San Vicente del Raspeig, S/N, 03690 Alicante, Spain
4
Department of Computer Architecture and Technology, University of Cordoba, Campus de Rabanales, 14001 Cordoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrea Zanella and Toktam Mahmoodi
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart City: Vision and Reality)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [908 KB, uploaded 9 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Smart Cities are called to change the daily life of human beings. This concept permits improving the efficiency of our cities in several areas such as the use of water, energy consumption, waste treatment, and mobility both for people as well as vehicles throughout the city. This represents an interconnected scenario in which thousands of embedded devices need to work in a collaborative way both for sensing and modifying the environment properly. Under this scenario, the majority of devices will use wireless protocols for communicating among them, representing a challenge for optimizing the use of the electromagnetic spectrum. When the density of deployed nodes increases, the competition for using the physical medium becomes harder and, in consequence, traffic collisions will be higher, affecting data-rates in the communication process. This work presents mDARAL, a multi-radio routing algorithm based on the Dynamic and Adaptive Radio Algorithm (DARAL), which has the capability of isolating groups of nodes into sub-networks. The nodes of each sub-network will communicate among them using a dedicated radio frequency, thus isolating the use of the radio channel to a reduced number of nodes. Each sub-network will have a master node with two physical radios, one for communicating with its neighbours and the other for being the contact point among its group and other sub-networks. The communication among sub-networks is done through master nodes in a dedicated radio frequency. The algorithm works to maximize the overall performance of the network through the distribution of the traffic messages into unoccupied frequencies. The obtained results show that mDARAL achieves great improvement in terms of the number of control messages necessary to connect a node to the network, convergence time and energy consumption during the connection phase compared to DARAL. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-radio; network routing algorithm; WSN; DARAL; smart city; IEEE 802.15.4 multi-radio; network routing algorithm; WSN; DARAL; smart city; IEEE 802.15.4
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Estévez, F.J.; Castillo-Secilla, J.M.; González, J.; Olivares, J.; Glösekötter, P. mDARAL: A Multi-Radio Version for the DARAL Routing Algorithm. Sensors 2017, 17, 324.

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