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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2878; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122878

Evaluation of Propagation Characteristics Using the Human Body as an Antenna

1
Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055, China
2
School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary College, University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract

In this paper, an inhomogeneous human body model was presented to investigate the propagation characteristics when the human body was used as an antenna to achieve signal transmission. Specifically, the channel gain of four scenarios, namely, (1) both TX electrode and RX electrode were placed in the air, (2) TX electrode was attached on the human body, and RX electrode was placed in the air, (3) TX electrode was placed in the air, and RX electrode was attached on the human body, (4) both the TX electrode and RX electrode were attached on the human body, were studied through numerical simulation in the frequency range 1 MHz to 90 MHz. Furthermore, the comparisons of input efficiency, accepted efficiency, total efficiency, absorption power of human body, and electric field distribution of different distances of four aforementioned scenarios were explored when the frequency was at 44 MHz. In addition, the influences of different human tissues, electrode position, and the distance between electrode and human body on the propagation characteristics were investigated respectively at 44 MHz. The results showed that the channel gain of Scenario 4 was the maximum when the frequency was from 1 MHz to 90 MHz. The propagation characteristics were almost independent of electrode position when the human body was using as an antenna. However, as the distance between TX electrode and human body increased, the channel gain decreased rapidly. The simulations were verified by experimental measurements. The results showed that the simulations were in agreement with the measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: propagation characteristics; human body; antenna; inhomogeneous model; simulation and measurement propagation characteristics; human body; antenna; inhomogeneous model; simulation and measurement
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Li, J.; Nie, Z.; Liu, Y.; Wang, L.; Hao, Y. Evaluation of Propagation Characteristics Using the Human Body as an Antenna. Sensors 2017, 17, 2878.

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