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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2798; doi:10.3390/s17122798

Superconducting Quantum Interferometers for Nondestructive Evaluation

1
Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52428 Jülich, Germany
2
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow 141700, Russia
3
Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering & Electronics RAS, Moscow 125009, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Sensing Technologies for Nondestructive Evaluation)
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Abstract

We review stationary and mobile systems that are used for the nondestructive evaluation of room temperature objects and are based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The systems are optimized for samples whose dimensions are between 10 micrometers and several meters. Stray magnetic fields from small samples (10 µm–10 cm) are studied using a SQUID microscope equipped with a magnetic flux antenna, which is fed through the walls of liquid nitrogen cryostat and a hole in the SQUID’s pick-up loop and returned sidewards from the SQUID back to the sample. The SQUID microscope does not disturb the magnetization of the sample during image recording due to the decoupling of the magnetic flux antenna from the modulation and feedback coil. For larger samples, we use a hand-held mobile liquid nitrogen minicryostat with a first order planar gradiometric SQUID sensor. Low-Tc DC SQUID systems that are designed for NDE measurements of bio-objects are able to operate with sufficient resolution in a magnetically unshielded environment. High-Tc DC SQUID magnetometers that are operated in a magnetic shield demonstrate a magnetic field resolution of ~4 fT/√Hz at 77 K. This sensitivity is improved to ~2 fT/√Hz at 77 K by using a soft magnetic flux antenna. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic analysis; magnetic sensors; nondestructive testing; scanning probe microscopy; SQUIDs magnetic analysis; magnetic sensors; nondestructive testing; scanning probe microscopy; SQUIDs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Faley, M.I.; Kostyurina, E.A.; Kalashnikov, K.V.; Maslennikov, Y.V.; Koshelets, V.P.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. Superconducting Quantum Interferometers for Nondestructive Evaluation. Sensors 2017, 17, 2798.

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