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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2706; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122706

FTUC: A Flooding Tree Uneven Clustering Protocol for a Wireless Sensor Network

1
School of Information Engineering, Guang Dong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510000, China
2
Polytech-IETR, University of Nantes, rue Christian Pauc, 44300 Nantes, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Clustering is an efficient approach in a wireless sensor network (WSN) to reduce the energy consumption of nodes and to extend the lifetime of the network. Unfortunately, this approach requires that all cluster heads (CHs) transmit their data to the base station (BS), which gives rise to the long distance communications problem, and in multi-hop routing, the CHs near the BS have to forward data from other nodes that lead those CHs to die prematurely, creating the hot zones problem. Unequal clustering has been proposed to solve these problems. Most of the current algorithms elect CH only by considering their competition radius, leading to unevenly distributed cluster heads. Furthermore, global distances values are needed when calculating the competition radius, which is a tedious task in large networks. To face these problems, we propose a flooding tree uneven clustering protocol (FTUC) suited for large networks. Based on the construction of a tree type sub-network to calculate the minimum and maximum distances values of the network, we then apply the unequal cluster theory. We also introduce referenced position circles to evenly elect cluster heads. Therefore, cluster heads are elected depending on the node’s residual energy and their distance to a referenced circle. FTUC builds the best inter-cluster communications route by evaluating a cluster head cost function to find the best next hop to the BS. The simulation results show that the FTUC algorithm decreases the energy consumption of the nodes and balances the global energy consumption effectively, thus extending the lifetime of the network. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor network (WSN); flooding tree; uneven clustering; unequal cluster; network wireless sensor network (WSN); flooding tree; uneven clustering; unequal cluster; network
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He, W.; Pillement, S.; Xu, D. FTUC: A Flooding Tree Uneven Clustering Protocol for a Wireless Sensor Network. Sensors 2017, 17, 2706.

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