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Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2453; doi:10.3390/s17112453

Prostate Cancer Detection with a Tactile Resonance Sensor—Measurement Considerations and Clinical Setup

Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden
Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden
Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden
Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden
Department of Radiation Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Umeå University, SE-90187 Umeå, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tactile Sensors and Sensing)
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Tumors in the human prostate are usually stiffer compared to surrounding non-malignant glandular tissue, and tactile resonance sensors measuring stiffness can be used to detect prostate cancer. To explore this further, we used a tactile resonance sensor system combined with a rotatable sample holder where whole surgically removed prostates could be attached to detect tumors on, and beneath, the surface ex vivo. Model studies on tissue phantoms made of silicone and porcine tissue were performed. Finally, two resected human prostate glands were studied. Embedded stiff silicone inclusions placed 4 mm under the surface could be detected in both the silicone and biological tissue models, with a sensor indentation of 0.6 mm. Areas with different amounts of prostate cancer (PCa) could be distinguished from normal tissue (p < 0.05), when the tumor was located in the anterior part, whereas small tumors located in the dorsal aspect were undetected. The study indicates that PCa may be detected in a whole resected prostate with an uneven surface and through its capsule. This is promising for the development of a clinically useful instrument to detect prostate cancer during surgery. View Full-Text
Keywords: tissue stiffness; resonance sensor; tactile sensor; prostate cancer; piezoelectric sensor tissue stiffness; resonance sensor; tactile sensor; prostate cancer; piezoelectric sensor

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Åstrand, A.P.; Andersson, B.M.; Jalkanen, V.; Ljungberg, B.; Bergh, A.; Lindahl, O.A. Prostate Cancer Detection with a Tactile Resonance Sensor—Measurement Considerations and Clinical Setup. Sensors 2017, 17, 2453.

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