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Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2237; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102237

Improving the Accuracy of Direct Geo-referencing of Smartphone-Based Mobile Mapping Systems Using Relative Orientation and Scene Geometric Constraints

Geomatics Engineering Department, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
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Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Sensor Integration and Fusion)
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Abstract

This paper introduces a new method which facilitate the use of smartphones as a handheld low-cost mobile mapping system (MMS). Smartphones are becoming more sophisticated and smarter and are quickly closing the gap between computers and portable tablet devices. The current generation of smartphones are equipped with low-cost GPS receivers, high-resolution digital cameras, and micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS)-based navigation sensors (e.g., accelerometers, gyroscopes, magnetic compasses, and barometers). These sensors are in fact the essential components for a MMS. However, smartphone navigation sensors suffer from the poor accuracy of global navigation satellite System (GNSS), accumulated drift, and high signal noise. These issues affect the accuracy of the initial Exterior Orientation Parameters (EOPs) that are inputted into the bundle adjustment algorithm, which then produces inaccurate 3D mapping solutions. This paper proposes new methodologies for increasing the accuracy of direct geo-referencing of smartphones using relative orientation and smartphone motion sensor measurements as well as integrating geometric scene constraints into free network bundle adjustment. The new methodologies incorporate fusing the relative orientations of the captured images and their corresponding motion sensor measurements to improve the initial EOPs. Then, the geometric features (e.g., horizontal and vertical linear lines) visible in each image are extracted and used as constraints in the bundle adjustment procedure which correct the relative position and orientation of the 3D mapping solution. View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile mapping system; close range photogrammetry; smartphone; low-cost navigation systems; relative orientation; geometric constraints mobile mapping system; close range photogrammetry; smartphone; low-cost navigation systems; relative orientation; geometric constraints
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Alsubaie, N.M.; Youssef, A.A.; El-Sheimy, N. Improving the Accuracy of Direct Geo-referencing of Smartphone-Based Mobile Mapping Systems Using Relative Orientation and Scene Geometric Constraints. Sensors 2017, 17, 2237.

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