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Sensors 2017, 17(1), 38; doi:10.3390/s17010038

Fiber-Optic Fabry-Pérot Interferometers for Axial Force Sensing on the Tip of a Needle

1
Department of Physics and Astronomy and LaserLab Amsterdam, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1081 HV, The Netherlands
2
Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628 CD, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6587 KB, uploaded 28 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

A range of complex percutaneous procedures, such as biopsy or regional anesthesia, rely heavily on accurate needle insertion. Small variations in the mechanical properties of the pierced tissue can however cause deviations from the projected needle path and can thus result in inaccurate placement of the needle. Navigation of a rigid needle towards the target tissue is traditionally based on the surgeons capacity to interpret small variations in the needle insertion force. A more accurate measurement of these small force variations enables improvement in needle targeting, can potentially aid in enhancing force feedback in robotic needle placement and can provide valuable information on tissue-tool interaction. In this study we investigated several concepts for the design of a force sensor based on a fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot interferometer to measure needle-tissue interaction forces on the tip of a 18 G needle, where special attention was given to concepts for a sensor with (1), an intrinsic low cross-sensitivity to temperature and (2), elementary design and fabrication. Three concepts, using either a quartz capillary, an Invar capillary or a thin polyimide film as the force sensitive element were prototyped and subjected to both static and dynamic testing. The force transducer based on a quartz capillary presented the lowest cross-sensitivity to temperature ( 12 m N / C) and good accuracy (maximum measurement error of 65 m N /10 N ) in a measurement of static forces. However, limited strength of the sensor is expected to prevent usage of the quartz capillary in small diameter needles. The concepts for a sensor based on an Invar capillary or a thin polyimide film proved a higher cross-sensitivity to temperature ( 50 m N / C and 220 m N / C, respectively) and higher maximum measurement error (350 m N /10 N , 800 m N /10 N ), comparable to those of FBG-based sensors reported in literature, but are likely to be more suitable for integration in very small biopsy needles. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fabry-Pérot interferometer; needle-tissue interaction force; low temperature cross-sensitivity; fiber optic force sensor; tip force sensing Fabry-Pérot interferometer; needle-tissue interaction force; low temperature cross-sensitivity; fiber optic force sensor; tip force sensing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Beekmans, S.; Lembrechts, T.; van den Dobbelsteen, J.; van Gerwen, D. Fiber-Optic Fabry-Pérot Interferometers for Axial Force Sensing on the Tip of a Needle. Sensors 2017, 17, 38.

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