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Sensors 2017, 17(1), 210; doi:10.3390/s17010210

Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for the Determination of Lung Cancer Biomarkers—A Preliminary Investigation

1
Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Heinrich Blasius Institute for Physical Technologies, Berliner Tor 21, 20099 Hamburg, Germany
2
University of the West of Scotland, High Street, PA1 2BE Paisley, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Woosuck Shin and Toshio Itoh
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 18 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 21 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Sensors for Health Care and Medical Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1123 KB, uploaded 21 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

With 1.6 million deaths per year, lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. One reason for this high number is the absence of a preventive medical examination method. Many diagnoses occur in a late cancer stage with a low survival rate. An early detection could significantly decrease the mortality. In recent decades, certain substances in human breath have been linked to certain diseases. Different studies show that it is possible to distinguish between lung cancer patients and a healthy control group by analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their breath. We developed a sensor based on photoacoustic spectroscopy for six of the most relevant VOCs linked to lung cancer. As a radiation source, the sensor uses an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO) in a wavelength region from 3.2 µm to 3.5 µm. The limits of detection for a single substance range between 5 ppb and 142 ppb. We also measured high resolution absorption spectra of the biomarkers compared to the data currently available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) database, which is the basis of any selective spectroscopic detection. Future lung cancer screening devices could be based on the further development of this sensor. View Full-Text
Keywords: photoacoustic spectroscopy; PAS; volatile organic compound; VOC; IR spectra; lung cancer; biomarker; breath analysis; OPO; optical-parametric oscillator photoacoustic spectroscopy; PAS; volatile organic compound; VOC; IR spectra; lung cancer; biomarker; breath analysis; OPO; optical-parametric oscillator
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Saalberg, Y.; Bruhns, H.; Wolff, M. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for the Determination of Lung Cancer Biomarkers—A Preliminary Investigation. Sensors 2017, 17, 210.

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