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Sensors 2017, 17(1), 14; doi:10.3390/s17010014

Finite Element Analysis of Single Cell Stiffness Measurements Using PZT-Integrated Buckling Nanoneedles

Department of Control and Mechatronics Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
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Academic Editor: Igor Medintz
Received: 3 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 23 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

This paper proposes a new technique for real-time single cell stiffness measurement using lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-integrated buckling nanoneedles. The PZT and the buckling part of the nanoneedle have been modelled and validated using the ABAQUS software. The two parts are integrated together to function as a single unit. After calibration, the stiffness, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and sensitivity of the PZT-integrated buckling nanoneedle have been determined to be 0.7100 N·m−1, 123.4700 GPa, 0.3000 and 0.0693 V·m·N−1, respectively. Three Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells have been modelled and validated based on compression tests. The average global stiffness and Young’s modulus of the cells are determined to be 10.8867 ± 0.0094 N·m−1 and 110.7033 ± 0.0081 MPa, respectively. The nanoneedle and the cell have been assembled to measure the local stiffness of the single Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells The local stiffness, Young’s modulus and PZT output voltage of the three different size Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been determined at different environmental conditions. We investigated that, at low temperature the stiffness value is low to adapt to the change in the environmental condition. As a result, Saccharomyces cerevisiae becomes vulnerable to viral and bacterial attacks. Therefore, the proposed technique will serve as a quick and accurate process to diagnose diseases at early stage in a cell for effective treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: global stiffness; local stiffness; buckling nanoneedle; PZT-integrated; single cell analysis global stiffness; local stiffness; buckling nanoneedle; PZT-integrated; single cell analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rad, M.A.; Tijjani, A.S.; Ahmad, M.R.; Auwal, S.M. Finite Element Analysis of Single Cell Stiffness Measurements Using PZT-Integrated Buckling Nanoneedles. Sensors 2017, 17, 14.

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