Next Article in Journal
Zwitterionic Surfactant Modified Acetylene Black Paste Electrode for Highly Facile and Sensitive Determination of Tetrabromobisphenol A
Next Article in Special Issue
Modeling and Calibration of a Novel One-Mirror Galvanometric Laser Scanner
Previous Article in Journal
Design of Highly Selective Gas Sensors via Physicochemical Modification of Oxide Nanowires: Overview
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Laser Line Auto-Scanning System for Underwater 3D Reconstruction
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1546; doi:10.3390/s16091546

Features of a Self-Mixing Laser Diode Operating Near Relaxation Oscillation

1
School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Ave, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
2
School of Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Thierry Bosch, Aleksandar D. Rakić and Santiago Royo
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 16 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3032 KB, uploaded 21 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

When a fraction of the light reflected by an external cavity re-enters the laser cavity, both the amplitude and the frequency of the lasing field can be modulated. This phenomenon is called the self-mixing effect (SME). A self-mixing laser diode (SM-LD) is a sensor using the SME. Usually, such LDs operate below the stability boundary where no relaxation oscillation happens. The boundary is determined by the operation condition including the injection current, optical feedback strength and external cavity length. This paper discovers the features of an SM-LD where the LD operates beyond the stability boundary, that is, near the relaxation oscillation (RO) status. We call the signals from such a SM-LD as RO-SM signals to differentiate them from the conventional SM signals reported in the literature. Firstly, simulations are made based on the well-known Lang and Kobayashi (L-K) equations. Then the experiments are conducted on different LDs to verify the simulation results. It shows that a RO-SM signal exhibits high frequency oscillation with its amplitude modulated by a slow time varying envelop which corresponds to the movement of the external target. The envelope has same fringe structure (half-wavelength displacement resolution) with the conventional SM signals. However, the amplitudes of the RO-SM signals are much higher compared to conventional SM signals. The results presented reveal that an SM-LD operating near the RO has potential for achieving sensing with improved sensitivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-mixing effect; laser diode; relaxation oscillation; stability boundary self-mixing effect; laser diode; relaxation oscillation; stability boundary
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, B.; Yu, Y.; Xi, J.; Fan, Y.; Guo, Q.; Tong, J.; Lewis, R.A. Features of a Self-Mixing Laser Diode Operating Near Relaxation Oscillation. Sensors 2016, 16, 1546.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top