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Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1500; doi:10.3390/s16091500

Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes

1
Universidad Católica de Manizales, Facultad de Ingeniería y Arquitectura, Unidad Académica de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas, Manizales 170001, Colombia
2
Automation and Control Group in Manufacturing Processes—GRACO, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Brasilia, Brasilia DF 7191090, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 25 July 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

Associated to the weld quality, the weld bead geometry is one of the most important parameters in welding processes. It is a significant requirement in a welding project, especially in automatic welding systems where a specific width, height, or penetration of weld bead is needed. This paper presents a novel technique for real-time measuring of the width and height of weld beads in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) using a single high-speed camera and a long-pass optical filter in a passive vision system. The measuring method is based on digital image processing techniques and the image calibration process is based on projective transformations. The measurement process takes less than 3 milliseconds per image, which allows a transfer rate of more than 300 frames per second. The proposed methodology can be used in any metal transfer mode of a gas metal arc welding process and does not have occlusion problems. The responses of the measurement system, presented here, are in a good agreement with off-line data collected by a common laser-based 3D scanner. Each measurement is compare using a statistical Welch’s t-test of the null hypothesis, which, in any case, does not exceed the threshold of significance level α = 0.01, validating the results and the performance of the proposed vision system. View Full-Text
Keywords: monitoring of GMAW process; weld bead geometry; passive vision; digital images processing; real-Time monitoring of GMAW process; weld bead geometry; passive vision; digital images processing; real-Time
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pinto-Lopera, J.E.; S. T. Motta, J.M.; Absi Alfaro, S.C. Real-Time Measurement of Width and Height of Weld Beads in GMAW Processes. Sensors 2016, 16, 1500.

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