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Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1212; doi:10.3390/s16091212

Color Change of Phenol Red by Integrated Smart Phone Camera as a Tool for the Determination of Neurotoxic Compounds

1
Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 95, Pardubice CZ-53210, Czech Republic
2
Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defense, Trebesska 1575, Hradec Kralove CZ-50001, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Star
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 15 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 7 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3275 KB, uploaded 7 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

The use of a cell phone as a detection system is easy, simple and does not require trained personnel, which is in contrast to standard laboratory instruments. This paper deals with immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in a gelatin matrix, and phenol red, as an indicator of AChE activity, is used in order to establish a method that is easily compatible with a camera device. AChE splits acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid, which changes the pH of a medium, resulting in a phenol red color change. The coloration changed in presence of an AChE inhibitor. Measurements were performed on 3D-printed, tube-shaped holder, and digital photography, with subsequent analysis of red-green-blue (RGB), served for assay purposes. Calibration of AChE inhibitors, tacrine and galantamine, was performed, with limit of detection equal to 1.1 nM and 1.28 µM, respectively. Interferences were also measured, resulting in a proof-of-method stability. The method was further successfully validated for the standard Ellman’s assay, and verified on murine plasma samples spiked with inhibitors. View Full-Text
Keywords: acetylcholinesterase; phenol red; smart phone; drop assay; colorimetry; inhibitor; biosensor acetylcholinesterase; phenol red; smart phone; drop assay; colorimetry; inhibitor; biosensor
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kostelnik, A.; Cegan, A.; Pohanka, M. Color Change of Phenol Red by Integrated Smart Phone Camera as a Tool for the Determination of Neurotoxic Compounds. Sensors 2016, 16, 1212.

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