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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 990; doi:10.3390/s16070990

A Three-Dimensional Shape-Based Force and Stiffness-Sensing Platform for Tendon-Driven Catheters

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-14766, Iran
2
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz 51335-1996, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Mariani
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

This paper presents an efficient shape-based three-axial force and stiffness estimator for active catheters commonly implemented in cardiac ablation. The force-sensing capability provides important feedback for catheterization procedures including real-time control and catheter steering in autonomous navigation systems. The proposed platform is based on the introduced accurate and computationally efficient Cosserat rod model for tendon-driven catheters. The proposed nonlinear Kalman filter formulation for contact force estimation along with the developed catheter model provides a real-time force observer robust to nonlinearities and noise covariance uncertainties. Furthermore, the proposed platform enables stiffness estimation in addition to tip contact force sensing in different operational circumstances. The approach incorporates pose measurements which can be achieved using currently developed pose-sensing systems or imaging techniques. The method makes the approach compatible with the range of forces applied in clinical applications. The simulation and experimental results verify the viability of the introduced force and stiffness-sensing technique. View Full-Text
Keywords: catheters; force sensing; stiffness estimation; iterative; nonlinear Kalman filter; adaptive catheters; force sensing; stiffness estimation; iterative; nonlinear Kalman filter; adaptive
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kouh Soltani, M.; Khanmohammadi, S.; Ghalichi, F. A Three-Dimensional Shape-Based Force and Stiffness-Sensing Platform for Tendon-Driven Catheters. Sensors 2016, 16, 990.

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