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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1119; doi:10.3390/s16071119

Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Panicos Kyriacou
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Sensors for Globalized Healthy Living and Wellbeing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4099 KB, uploaded 20 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

The distribution of interface stresses between the residual limb and prosthetic socket of a transtibial amputee has been considered as a direct indicator of the socket quality fit and comfort. Therefore, researchers have been very interested in quantifying these interface stresses in order to evaluate the extent of any potential damage caused by the socket to the residual limb tissues. During the past 50 years a variety of measurement techniques have been employed in an effort to identify sites of excessive stresses which may lead to skin breakdown, compare stress distributions in various socket designs, and evaluate interface cushioning and suspension systems, among others. The outcomes of such measurement techniques have contributed to improving the design and fitting of transtibial sockets. This article aims to review the operating principles, advantages, and disadvantages of conventional and emerging techniques used for interface stress measurements inside transtibial sockets. It also reviews and discusses the evolution of different socket concepts and interface stress investigations conducted in the past five decades, providing valuable insights into the latest trends in socket designs and the crucial considerations for effective stress measurement tools that lead to a functional prosthetic socket. View Full-Text
Keywords: prosthetic sockets; transtibial amputee; pressure measurement transducers; interface stress investigations; PTB sockets; TSB sockets; liners; suspension systems; biomechanics prosthetic sockets; transtibial amputee; pressure measurement transducers; interface stress investigations; PTB sockets; TSB sockets; liners; suspension systems; biomechanics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Fakih, E.A.; Abu Osman, N.A.; Mahmad Adikan, F.R. Techniques for Interface Stress Measurements within Prosthetic Sockets of Transtibial Amputees: A Review of the Past 50 Years of Research. Sensors 2016, 16, 1119.

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