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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1076; doi:10.3390/s16071076

Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Department of Computer Science, International Islamic University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
Cameron Library, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2J8, Canada
4
Internetworking Program, Faculty of Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3J 4R2, Canada
5
Computer Information Science, Higher Colleges of Technology, Fujairah 4114, United Arab Emirates
6
Biomedical Technology Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dongkyun Kim and Houbing Song
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 12 July 2016
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Abstract

This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE) efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE) are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ). E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor network; incremental relaying; cooperative diversity; retransmission; automatic repeat request underwater wireless sensor network; incremental relaying; cooperative diversity; retransmission; automatic repeat request
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nasir, H.; Javaid, N.; Sher, M.; Qasim, U.; Khan, Z.A.; Alrajeh, N.; Niaz, I.A. Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 1076.

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