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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1067; doi:10.3390/s16071067

A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35401, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Steffen Leonhardt and Daniel Teichmann
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 11 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Biomedical Sensors)
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Abstract

Presence of speech and motion artifacts has been shown to impact the performance of wearable sensor systems used for automatic detection of food intake. This work presents a novel wearable device which can detect food intake even when the user is physically active and/or talking. The device consists of a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle, an accelerometer, and a data acquisition module connected to the temple of eyeglasses. Data from 10 participants was collected while they performed activities including quiet sitting, talking, eating while sitting, eating while walking, and walking. Piezoelectric strain sensor and accelerometer signals were divided into non-overlapping epochs of 3 s; four features were computed for each signal. To differentiate between eating and not eating, as well as between sedentary postures and physical activity, two multiclass classification approaches are presented. The first approach used a single classifier with sensor fusion and the second approach used two-stage classification. The best results were achieved when two separate linear support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were trained for food intake and activity detection, and their results were combined using a decision tree (two-stage classification) to determine the final class. This approach resulted in an average F1-score of 99.85% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99 for multiclass classification. With its ability to differentiate between food intake and activity level, this device may potentially be used for tracking both energy intake and energy expenditure. View Full-Text
Keywords: wearable sensor; activity monitoring; food intake monitoring; chewing; support vector machine (SVM); energy intake; energy expenditure; piezoelectric strain sensor wearable sensor; activity monitoring; food intake monitoring; chewing; support vector machine (SVM); energy intake; energy expenditure; piezoelectric strain sensor
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Farooq, M.; Sazonov, E. A Novel Wearable Device for Food Intake and Physical Activity Recognition. Sensors 2016, 16, 1067.

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