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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1126; doi:10.3390/s16071126

The Evaluation of Physical Stillness with Wearable Chest and Arm Accelerometer during Chan Ding Practice

1
Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, 500, Lioufeng Rd., Wufeng, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
2
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3
Biosignal Processing Lab, Asia University, 500, Lioufeng Rd., Wufeng, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
4
Department of Business Administration, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 10617, Taiwan
5
Department of Educational management and law, National Taipei University of Education, No.134, Sec. 2, Heping E. Rd., Da-an District, Taipei 10671, Taiwan
6
Department of Law, National Chung Cheng University, No.168, Sec. 1, University Rd., Min-Hsiung Township, Chia-yi County 62102, Taiwan
7
Department of Biomedical Engineering Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Jalan Elmu, Off Jalan University, Kuala Lumpur 59100, Malaysia
8
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Daxue Rd., Puli Township, Nantou County 545, Taiwan
9
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Chaoyang University of Technology, 168, Jifeng E. Rd., Wufeng District, Taichung 41349, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Steffen Leonhardt and Daniel Teichmann
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 18 June 2016 / Accepted: 4 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Biomedical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1318 KB, uploaded 20 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Chan Ding training is beneficial to health and emotional wellbeing. More and more people have taken up this practice over the past few years. A major training method of Chan Ding is to focus on the ten Mailuns, i.e., energy points, and to maintain physical stillness. In this article, wireless wearable accelerometers were used to detect physical stillness, and the created physical stillness index (PSI) was also shown. Ninety college students participated in this study. Primarily, accelerometers used on the arms and chest were examined. The results showed that the PSI values on the arms were higher than that of the chest, when participants moved their bodies in three different ways, left-right, anterior-posterior, and hand, movements with natural breathing. Then, they were divided into three groups to practice Chan Ding for approximately thirty minutes. Participants without any Chan Ding experience were in Group I. Participants with one year of Chan Ding experience were in Group II, and participants with over three year of experience were in Group III. The Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI) was also conducted. Results showed that the PSI of the three groups measured during 20–30 min were 0.123 ± 0.155, 0.012 ± 0.013, and 0.001 ± 0.0003, respectively (p < 0.001 ***). The averaged CHI scores of the three groups were 10.13, 17.17, and 25.53, respectively (p < 0.001 ***). Correlation coefficients between PSI and CHI of the three groups were −0.440, −0.369, and −0.537, respectively (p < 0.01 **). PSI value and the wearable accelerometer that are presently available on the market could be used to evaluate the quality of the physical stillness of the participants during Chan Ding practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chan Ding; wearable accelerometer; physical stillness index (PSI); meditation; Chinese Happiness Inventory Chan Ding; wearable accelerometer; physical stillness index (PSI); meditation; Chinese Happiness Inventory
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, K.-M.; Chun, Y.-T.; Chen, S.-H.; Lu, L.; Su, H.-T.J.; Liang, H.-M.; Santhosh, J.; Ching, C.T.-S.; Liu, S.-H. The Evaluation of Physical Stillness with Wearable Chest and Arm Accelerometer during Chan Ding Practice. Sensors 2016, 16, 1126.

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