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Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1024; doi:10.3390/s16071024

Single-Use Disposable Electrochemical Label-Free Immunosensor for Detection of Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV)

1
Dipartimento Chimica Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Electronics Design Center, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Junichi Anzai
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 26 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 1 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Glycoproteins and Glycated Proteins)
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Abstract

A single-use disposable in vitro electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of HbA1c in undiluted human serum using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was developed. A three-electrode configuration electrochemical biosensor consisted of 10-nm-thin gold film working and counter electrodes and a thick-film printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode was fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Micro-fabrication techniques including sputtering vapor deposition and thick-film printing were used to fabricate the biosensor. This was a roll-to-roll cost-effective manufacturing process making the single-use disposable in vitro HbA1c biosensor a reality. Self-assembled monolayers of 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were employed to covalently immobilize anti-HbA1c on the surface of gold electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the excellent coverage of MPA-SAM and the upward orientation of carboxylic groups. The hindering effect of HbA1c on the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide electron transfer reaction was exploited as the HbA1c detection mechanism. The biosensor showed a linear range of 7.5–20 µg/mL of HbA1c in 0.1 M PBS. Using undiluted human serum as the test medium, the biosensor presented an excellent linear behavior (R2 = 0.999) in the range of 0.1–0.25 mg/mL of HbA1c. The potential application of this biosensor for in vitro measurement of HbA1c for diabetic management was demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunosensor; HbA1c; differential pulse voltammetry; 3-MPA immunosensor; HbA1c; differential pulse voltammetry; 3-MPA
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MDPI and ACS Style

Molazemhosseini, A.; Magagnin, L.; Vena, P.; Liu, C.-C. Single-Use Disposable Electrochemical Label-Free Immunosensor for Detection of Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Using Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV). Sensors 2016, 16, 1024.

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