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Sensors 2016, 16(4), 499; doi:10.3390/s16040499

Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

1
Research Group in AgroICT & Precision Agriculture, Department of Agricultural and Forest Engineering, Universitat de Lleida (UdL)—Agrotecnio Center, Edifici CREA, c/Pere de Cabrera s/n, Lleida 25001, Spain
2
Department of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Food, Generalitat de Catalunya, Lleida 25198, Spain
3
Remote Sensing Laboratory, Department of Signal Theory and Communications, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)/IEEC, Barcelona 08034, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon X. Yang
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 19 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Agriculture)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2996 KB, uploaded 11 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift. View Full-Text
Keywords: lidar; spray drift; pesticide; laser; remote sensing; agriculture lidar; spray drift; pesticide; laser; remote sensing; agriculture
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gregorio, E.; Torrent, X.; Planas de Martí, S.; Solanelles, F.; Sanz, R.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Masip, J.; Ribes-Dasi, M.; Rosell-Polo, J.R. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System. Sensors 2016, 16, 499.

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