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Sensors 2016, 16(4), 487; doi:10.3390/s16040487

An Enhanced Energy Balanced Data Transmission Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

1
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
3
King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Lulea University of Technology, Luleå 971 87, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu Wang
Received: 9 February 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 7 April 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [798 KB, uploaded 7 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

This paper presents two new energy balanced routing protocols for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs); Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET) and Enhanced EBET (EEBET). The first proposed protocol avoids direct transmission over long distance to save sufficient amount of energy consumed in the routing process. The second protocol overcomes the deficiencies in both Balanced Transmission Mechanism (BTM) and EBET techniques. EBET selects relay node on the basis of optimal distance threshold which leads to network lifetime prolongation. The initial energy of each sensor node is divided into energy levels for balanced energy consumption. Selection of high energy level node within transmission range avoids long distance direct data transmission. The EEBET incorporates depth threshold to minimize the number of hops between source node and sink while eradicating backward data transmissions. The EBET technique balances energy consumption within successive ring sectors, while, EEBET balances energy consumption of the entire network. In EEBET, optimum number of energy levels are also calculated to further enhance the network lifetime. Effectiveness of the proposed schemes is validated through simulations where these are compared with two existing routing protocols in terms of network lifetime, transmission loss, and throughput. The simulations are conducted under different network radii and varied number of nodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater acoustic sensor networks; routing protocol; network lifetime; energy consumption; throughput underwater acoustic sensor networks; routing protocol; network lifetime; energy consumption; throughput
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Javaid, N.; Shah, M.; Ahmad, A.; Imran, M.; Khan, M.I.; Vasilakos, A.V. An Enhanced Energy Balanced Data Transmission Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 487.

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