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Sensors 2016, 16(4), 460; doi:10.3390/s16040460

Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Center of Excellence in Information Assurance (CoEIA), King Saud University, Riyadh 12372, Saudi Arabia
2
Intelligent Systems Group (ISG), Department of Computing, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
3
Faculty of Information Technology, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Macau 999078, China
4
College of Computer and Information Sciences (CCIS), King Saud University, Riyadh 12372, Saudi Arabia
5
Instituto de Telecomunicações, University of Beira Interior, Marquês d’Ávila e Bolama, Covilhã 6201-001, Portugal
6
University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza-CE 60115-170, Brazil
7
Information Technology, FCITR, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh 21911, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 31 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3827 KB, uploaded 31 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. View Full-Text
Keywords: autonomous; communication; cost-effective; cryptography; efficient; key management; routing protocol; secure; wireless sensor networks autonomous; communication; cost-effective; cryptography; efficient; key management; routing protocol; secure; wireless sensor networks
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Saleem, K.; Derhab, A.; Orgun, M.A.; Al-Muhtadi, J.; Rodrigues, J.J.P.C.; Khalil, M.S.; Ali Ahmed, A. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2016, 16, 460.

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