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Sensors 2016, 16(4), 453; doi:10.3390/s16040453

Human Detection Based on the Generation of a Background Image and Fuzzy System by Using a Thermal Camera

Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University, 30 Pildong-ro 1-gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 100-715, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vincenzo Spagnolo and Dragan Indjin
Received: 3 January 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 24 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infrared and THz Sensing and Imaging)


Recently, human detection has been used in various applications. Although visible light cameras are usually employed for this purpose, human detection based on visible light cameras has limitations due to darkness, shadows, sunlight, etc. An approach using a thermal (far infrared light) camera has been studied as an alternative for human detection, however, the performance of human detection by thermal cameras is degraded in case of low temperature differences between humans and background. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a new method for human detection by using thermal camera images. The main contribution of our research is that the thresholds for creating the binarized difference image between the input and background (reference) images can be adaptively determined based on fuzzy systems by using the information derived from the background image and difference values between background and input image. By using our method, human area can be correctly detected irrespective of the various conditions of input and background (reference) images. For the performance evaluation of the proposed method, experiments were performed with the 15 datasets captured under different weather and light conditions. In addition, the experiments with an open database were also performed. The experimental results confirm that the proposed method can robustly detect human shapes in various environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: human detection; thermal camera image; generation of background image; fuzzy system human detection; thermal camera image; generation of background image; fuzzy system

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jeon, E.S.; Kim, J.H.; Hong, H.G.; Batchuluun, G.; Park, K.R. Human Detection Based on the Generation of a Background Image and Fuzzy System by Using a Thermal Camera. Sensors 2016, 16, 453.

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