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Sensors 2016, 16(4), 428; doi:10.3390/s16040428

RheoStim: Development of an Adaptive Multi-Sensor to Prevent Venous Stasis

1
Chair for Medical Information Technology, Helmholtz Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstr. 20, Aachen 52074, Germany
2
tic Medizintechnik GmbH & Co. KG, Endelner Feld 9, Dorsten 46286, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 17 March 2016 / Accepted: 18 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noninvasive Biomedical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1252 KB, uploaded 24 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Chronic venous insufficiency of the lower limbs is often underestimated and, in the absence of therapy, results in increasingly severe complications, including therapy-resistant tissue defects. Therefore, early diagnosis and adequate therapy is of particular importance. External counter pulsation (ECP) therapy is a method used to assist the venous system. The main principle of ECP is to squeeze the inner leg vessels by muscle contractions, which are evoked by functional electrical stimulation. A new adaptive trigger method is proposed, which improves and supplements the current therapeutic options by means of pulse synchronous electro-stimulation of the muscle pump. For this purpose, blood flow is determined by multi-sensor plethysmography. The hardware design and signal processing of this novel multi-sensor plethysmography device are introduced. The merged signal is used to determine the phase of the cardiac cycle, to ensure stimulation of the muscle pump during the filling phase of the heart. The pulse detection of the system is validated against a gold standard and provides a sensitivity of 98% and a false-negative rate of 2% after physical exertion. Furthermore, flow enhancement of the system has been validated by duplex ultrasonography. The results show a highly increased blood flow in the popliteal vein at the knee. View Full-Text
Keywords: impedance plethysmography; reflective photoplethysmography; sensor data fusion; chronic venous insufficiency; Kalman filter; muscle pump electro-stimulation impedance plethysmography; reflective photoplethysmography; sensor data fusion; chronic venous insufficiency; Kalman filter; muscle pump electro-stimulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Weyer, S.; Weishaupt, F.; Kleeberg, C.; Leonhardt, S.; Teichmann, D. RheoStim: Development of an Adaptive Multi-Sensor to Prevent Venous Stasis. Sensors 2016, 16, 428.

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