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Sensors 2016, 16(3), 313; doi:10.3390/s16030313

Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar

1
Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
2
School for the Environment, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125, USA
3
CSIRO Land & Water, GPO Box 1666, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
4
Department of Physics and Applied Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 600 Suffolk Street, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
5
Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
6
Precision Agriculture Research Group, School of Science and Technology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Assefa M. Melesse
Received: 1 December 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 2 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4482 KB, uploaded 2 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρapp), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρapp are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρapp error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρapp from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars. View Full-Text
Keywords: terrestrial lidar; vegetation structure; radiometric calibration; DWEL; dual-wavelength lidar; full-waveform lidar terrestrial lidar; vegetation structure; radiometric calibration; DWEL; dual-wavelength lidar; full-waveform lidar
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Z.; Jupp, D.L.B.; Strahler, A.H.; Schaaf, C.B.; Howe, G.; Hewawasam, K.; Douglas, E.S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.A.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E.J.; Schaefer, M. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar. Sensors 2016, 16, 313.

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