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Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1942; doi:10.3390/s16111942

Ex-Vivo Characterization of Bioimpedance Spectroscopy of Normal, Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Rabbit Brain Tissue at Frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

Stroke is a severe cerebrovascular disease and is the second greatest cause of death worldwide. Because diagnostic tools (CT and MRI) to detect acute stroke cannot be used until the patient reaches the hospital setting, a portable diagnostic tool is urgently needed. Because biological tissues have different impedance spectra under normal physiological conditions and different pathological states, multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (MFEIT) can potentially detect stroke. Accurate impedance spectra of normal brain tissue (gray and white matter) and stroke lesions (ischemic and hemorrhagic tissue) are important elements when studying stroke detection with MFEIT. To our knowledge, no study has comprehensively measured the impedance spectra of normal brain tissue and stroke lesions for the whole frequency range of 1 MHz within as short as possible an ex vivo time and using the same animal model. In this study, we established intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic models in rabbits, then measured and analyzed the impedance spectra of normal brain tissue and stroke lesions ex vivo within 15 min after animal death at 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The results showed that the impedance spectra of stroke lesions significantly differed from those of normal brain tissue; the ratio of change in impedance of ischemic and hemorrhagic tissue with regard to frequency was distinct; and tissue type could be discriminated according to its impedance spectra. These findings further confirm the feasibility of detecting stroke with MFEIT and provide data supporting further study of MFEIT to detect stroke. View Full-Text
Keywords: stroke; electrical impedance tomography; bioimpedance spectra stroke; electrical impedance tomography; bioimpedance spectra
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, L.; Zhang, G.; Song, J.; Dai, M.; Xu, C.; Dong, X.; Fu, F. Ex-Vivo Characterization of Bioimpedance Spectroscopy of Normal, Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Rabbit Brain Tissue at Frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz. Sensors 2016, 16, 1942.

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