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Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1894; doi:10.3390/s16111894

Miniaturized and Wireless Optical Neurotransmitter Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Dopamine in the Brain

Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504, USA
Neural Engineering and Nano Electronics Laboratory, Department of Engineering, Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA 23504, USA
NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681, USA
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea
Department of Neurosurgery, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon 21936, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huangxian Ju
Received: 12 September 2016 / Revised: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4926 KB, uploaded 10 November 2016]   |  


Real-time monitoring of extracellular neurotransmitter concentration offers great benefits for diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders and diseases. This paper presents the study design and results of a miniaturized and wireless optical neurotransmitter sensor (MWONS) for real-time monitoring of brain dopamine concentration. MWONS is based on fluorescent sensing principles and comprises a microspectrometer unit, a microcontroller for data acquisition, and a Bluetooth wireless network for real-time monitoring. MWONS has a custom-designed application software that controls the operation parameters for excitation light sources, data acquisition, and signal processing. MWONS successfully demonstrated a measurement capability with a limit of detection down to a 100 nanomole dopamine concentration, and high selectivity to ascorbic acid (90:1) and uric acid (36:1). View Full-Text
Keywords: microspectrometer; fluorescence; dopamine; optical sensing; wireless microspectrometer; fluorescence; dopamine; optical sensing; wireless

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, M.H.; Yoon, H.; Choi, S.H.; Zhao, F.; Kim, J.; Song, K.D.; Lee, U. Miniaturized and Wireless Optical Neurotransmitter Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Dopamine in the Brain. Sensors 2016, 16, 1894.

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