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Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1567; doi:10.3390/s16101567

A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

1
Department of Network Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), C. Jordi Girona 1-3, Barcelona 08034, Spain
2
Departamento de Electrónica, Telecomunicaciones y Redes de Información, Facultad de Eléctrica y Electrónica, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN), C. Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, Quito P.O.Box 17-01-2759, Ecuador
3
Faculty of Informatics, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa (UAS), De los Deportes Avenue and Leonismo Internacional, Mazatlán 82107, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu Wang
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 18 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3163 KB, uploaded 23 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). View Full-Text
Keywords: heuristic optimization; routing protocols; VANET heuristic optimization; routing protocols; VANET
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Urquiza-Aguiar, L.; Tripp-Barba, C.; Aguilar Igartua, M. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs. Sensors 2016, 16, 1567.

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