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Sensors 2016, 16(1), 91; doi:10.3390/s16010091

An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage

1
College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Key Lab of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, 100083 Beijing, China
2
Department of Agricultural Engineering, The University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ki-Hyun Kim
Received: 20 November 2015 / Revised: 7 January 2016 / Accepted: 7 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Use of New and/or Improved Materials for Sensing Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1526 KB, uploaded 14 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Oxygen (O2) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by the introduction of O2 in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O2 sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O2 versus CO2 (each 0–15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O2 measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO2. For the O2 in situ measurement in silage, all O2 sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O2 depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O2 penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O2 concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations. View Full-Text
Keywords: oxygen (O2); carbon dioxide (CO2); galvanic oxygen cell (GOC); Clark oxygen electrodes (COE); Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS); silage oxygen (O2); carbon dioxide (CO2); galvanic oxygen cell (GOC); Clark oxygen electrodes (COE); Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS); silage
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shan, G.; Sun, Y.; Li, M.; Jungbluth, K.H.; Maack, C.; Buescher, W.; Schütt, K.-B.; Boeker, P.; Schulze Lammers, P.; Zhou, H.; Cheng, Q.; Ma, D. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage. Sensors 2016, 16, 91.

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