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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 23868-23885; doi:10.3390/s150923868

“Stable-on-the-Table” Biosensors: Hemoglobin-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Nanogel BioElectrodes with High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Electroactivity

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
2
Institute of Materials Science, U-3136, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
3
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Storrs, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
4
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Star
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 10 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Enzymatic Biosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1169 KB, uploaded 18 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

In our efforts toward producing environmentally responsible but highly stable bioelectrodes with high electroactivities, we report here a simple, inexpensive, autoclavable high sensitivity biosensor based on enzyme-polymer nanogels. Met-hemoglobin (Hb) is stabilized by wrapping it in high molecular weight poly(acrylic acid) (PAA, MW 450k), and the resulting nanogels abbreviated as Hb-PAA-450k, withstood exposure to high temperatures for extended periods under steam sterilization conditions (122 °C, 10 min, 17–20 psi) without loss of Hb structure or its peroxidase-like activities. The bioelectrodes prepared by coating Hb-PAA-450k nanogels on glassy carbon showed well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks at −0.279 and −0.334 V in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and retained >95% electroactivity after storing for 14 days at room temperature. Similarly, the bioelectrode showed ~90% retention in electrochemical properties after autoclaving under steam sterilization conditions. The ultra stable bioelectrode was used to detect hydrogen peroxide and demonstrated an excellent detection limit of 0.5 μM, the best among the Hb-based electrochemical biosensors. This is the first electrochemical demonstration of steam-sterilizable, storable, modular bioelectrode that undergoes reversible-thermal denaturation and retains electroactivity for protein based electrochemical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemistry; biocatalysis; hemoglobin; high temperature catalysis; steam sterilization; polyacrylic acid electrochemistry; biocatalysis; hemoglobin; high temperature catalysis; steam sterilization; polyacrylic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghimire, A.; Zore, O.V.; Thilakarathne, V.K.; Briand, V.A.; Lenehan, P.J.; Lei, Y.; Kasi, R.M.; Kumar, C.V. “Stable-on-the-Table” Biosensors: Hemoglobin-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Nanogel BioElectrodes with High Thermal Stability and Enhanced Electroactivity. Sensors 2015, 15, 23868-23885.

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