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Sensors 2015, 15(9), 23110-23125; doi:10.3390/s150923110

Improving the Detection Limit in a Capillary Raman System for In Situ Gas Analysis by Means of Fluorescence Reduction

1
Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Instituto Pluridisciplinar, Paseo Juan XXIII-1, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain
This author is now affiliated to: Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany.
This author is now affiliated to: Laser Quantum Ltd., Emery Court, Vale Road, Stockport, SK4 3GL, UK.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mark A. Arnold
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Sensors based on In Situ Spectroscopy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1376 KB, uploaded 11 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Raman spectroscopy for low-pressure or trace gas analysis is rather challenging, in particular in process control applications requiring trace detection and real-time response; in general, enhancement techniques are required. One possible enhancement approach which enjoys increasing popularity makes use of an internally-reflective capillary as the gas cell. However, in the majority of cases, such capillary systems were often limited in their achievable sensitivity by a significant fluorescence background, which is generated as a consequence of interactions between the laser light and optical glass components in the setup. In order to understand and counteract these problems we have investigated a range of fluorescence-reducing measures, including the rearrangement of optical elements, and the replacement of glass components—including the capillary itself—by metal alternatives. These studies now have led to a capillary setup in which fluorescence is practically eliminated and substantial signal enhancement over standard Raman setups is achieved. With this improved (prototype) setup, detection limits of well below 1 mbar could be obtained in sub-second acquisition times, demonstrating the potential of capillary Raman spectroscopy for real-time, in situ gas sensing and process control applications, down to trace level concentrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman spectroscopy; capillary; gas analysis; process control; real-time monitoring; instrument development; fluorescence reduction Raman spectroscopy; capillary; gas analysis; process control; real-time monitoring; instrument development; fluorescence reduction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rupp, S.; Off, A.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; James, T.M.; Telle, H.H. Improving the Detection Limit in a Capillary Raman System for In Situ Gas Analysis by Means of Fluorescence Reduction. Sensors 2015, 15, 23110-23125.

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