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Sensors 2015, 15(8), 19709-19722; doi:10.3390/s150819709

High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications

1
Radiation Monitoring Devices Inc., 44 Hunt Street, Watertown, MA 02472, USA
2
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
3
MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02421, USA
4
Pendar Medical, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
5
Department of Physics, 500 E Spring Street, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1423 KB, uploaded 12 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) is a well-established optical technique that has been used for non-invasive measurement of blood flow in tissues. Instrumentation for DCS includes a correlation device that computes the temporal intensity autocorrelation of a coherent laser source after it has undergone diffuse scattering through a turbid medium. Typically, the signal acquisition and its autocorrelation are performed by a correlation board. These boards have dedicated hardware to acquire and compute intensity autocorrelations of rapidly varying input signal and usually are quite expensive. Here we show that a Raspberry Pi minicomputer can acquire and store a rapidly varying time-signal with high fidelity. We show that this signal collected by a Raspberry Pi device can be processed numerically to yield intensity autocorrelations well suited for DCS applications. DCS measurements made using the Raspberry Pi device were compared to those acquired using a commercial hardware autocorrelation board to investigate the stability, performance, and accuracy of the data acquired in controlled experiments. This paper represents a first step toward lowering the instrumentation cost of a DCS system and may offer the potential to make DCS become more widely used in biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: software autocorrelation; blood flow; Raspberry Pi; optical spectroscopy; coherent scattering; laser speckle software autocorrelation; blood flow; Raspberry Pi; optical spectroscopy; coherent scattering; laser speckle
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tivnan, M.; Gurjar, R.; Wolf, D.E.; Vishwanath, K. High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications. Sensors 2015, 15, 19709-19722.

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